High voltage symbol
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More Material Details Mouse over icons for more details: Adhesive Signs and Labels. However, under conditions of low atmospheric pressure such as in high-altitude aircraft , or in an environment of noble gas such as argon or neon , sparks appear at much lower voltages.
While lower voltages do not, in general, jump a gap that is present before the voltage is applied, interrupting an existing current flow with a gap often produces a low-voltage spark or arc.
As the contacts are separated, a few small points of contact become the last to separate. The current becomes constricted to these small hot spots , causing them to become incandescent, so that they emit electrons through thermionic emission.
Even a small 9 V battery can spark noticeably by this mechanism in a darkened room. The ionized air and metal vapour from the contacts form plasma, which temporarily bridges the widening gap.
If the power supply and load allow sufficient current to flow, a self-sustaining arc may form. Once formed, an arc may be extended to a significant length before breaking the circuit.
Attempting to open an inductive circuit often forms an arc, since the inductance provides a high-voltage pulse whenever the current is interrupted.
AC systems make sustained arcing somewhat less likely, since the current returns to zero twice per cycle. The arc is extinguished every time the current goes through a zero crossing , and must reignite during the next half-cycle to maintain the arc.
Unlike an ohmic conductor, the resistance of an arc decreases as the current increases. This makes unintentional arcs in an electrical apparatus dangerous since even a small arc can grow large enough to damage equipment and start fires if sufficient current is available.
A high voltage is not necessarily dangerous if it cannot deliver substantial current. That is because the number of electrons involved is not high.
So a low current is applied for a very short time, and the number of electrons involved is very small. The discharge may involve extremely high voltage over very short periods, but, to produce heart fibrillation, an electric power supply must produce a significant current in the heart muscle continuing for many milliseconds , and must deposit a total energy in the range of at least millijoules or higher.
Relatively high current at anything more than about fifty volts can therefore be medically significant and potentially fatal.
Tesla coils are not electrostatic machines and can produce significant currents for a sustained interval. Although their appearance in operation is similar to high voltage static electricity devices, the current supplied to a human body will be relatively constant as long as contact is maintained, and the voltage will be much higher than the break-down voltage of human skin.
As a consequence, the output of a Tesla coil can be dangerous or even fatal. Electrical transmission and distribution lines for electric power typically use voltages between tens and hundreds of kilovolts, so contact with or close approach to the line conductors presents a danger of electrocution.
Contact with overhead wires is a frequent cause of injury or death. Metal ladders, farm equipment, boat masts, construction machinery, aerial antennas , and similar objects are frequently involved in fatal contact with overhead wires.
Digging into a buried cable can also be dangerous to workers at an excavation site. Digging equipment either hand tools or machine driven that contacts a buried cable may energize piping or the ground in the area, resulting in electrocution of nearby workers.
A fault in a high-voltage transmission line or substation may result in high currents flowing along the surface of the earth, producing an earth potential rise that also presents a danger of electric shock.
Unauthorized persons climbing on power pylons or electrical apparatus are also frequently the victims of electrocution.
For high-voltage and extra-high-voltage transmission lines, specially trained personnel use " live line " techniques to allow hands-on contact with energized equipment.
In this case the worker is electrically connected to the high-voltage line but thoroughly insulated from the earth so that he is at the same electrical potential as that of the line.
Since training for such operations is lengthy, and still presents a danger to personnel, only very important transmission lines are subject to maintenance while live.
Outside these properly engineered situations, insulation from earth does not guarantee that no current flows to earth—as grounding or arcing to ground can occur in unexpected ways, and high-frequency currents can burn even an ungrounded person.
Touching a transmitting antenna is dangerous for this reason, and a high-frequency Tesla coil can sustain a spark with only one endpoint.
Protective equipment on high-voltage transmission lines normally prevents formation of an unwanted arc, or ensures that it is quenched within tens of milliseconds.
Electrical apparatus that interrupts high-voltage circuits is designed to safely direct the resulting arc so that it dissipates without damage.
High voltage circuit breakers often use a blast of high pressure air, a special dielectric gas such as SF 6 under pressure , or immersion in mineral oil to quench the arc when the high voltage circuit is broken.
Depending on the prospective short-circuit current available at a switchgear line-up, a hazard is presented to maintenance and operating personnel due to the possibility of a high-intensity electric arc.
Maximum temperature of an arc can exceed 10, kelvins , and the radiant heat, expanding hot air, and explosive vaporization of metal and insulation material can cause severe injury to unprotected workers.
Such switchgear line-ups and high-energy arc sources are commonly present in electric power utility substations and generating stations, industrial plants and large commercial buildings.
In the United States, the National Fire Protection Association , has published a guideline standard NFPA 70E for evaluating and calculating arc flash hazard , and provides standards for the protective clothing required for electrical workers exposed to such hazards in the workplace.
Even voltages insufficient to break down air can be associated with enough energy to ignite atmospheres containing flammable gases or vapours, or suspended dust.
Examples of industrial facilities with hazardous areas are petrochemical refineries, chemical plants , grain elevators , and coal mines.
In recent years, standards for explosion hazard protection have become more uniform between European and North American practice.
The "zone" system of classification is now used in modified form in U. Intrinsic safety apparatus is now approved for use in North American applications.
Electrical discharges, including partial discharge and corona , can produce small quantities of toxic gases, which in a confined space can be a serious health hazard.
These gases include ozone and various oxides of nitrogen. The largest scale sparks are those produced naturally by lightning.
A negative lightning strike typically lasts for only tens of microseconds, but multiple strikes are common.
A positive lightning stroke is typically a single event. However, the larger peak current may flow for hundreds of milliseconds, making it considerably hotter and more dangerous than negative lightning.
Hazards due to lightning obviously include a direct strike on persons or property. However, lightning can also create dangerous voltage gradients in the earth, as well as an electromagnetic pulse , and can charge extended metal objects such as telephone cables, fences, and pipelines to dangerous voltages that can be carried many miles from the site of the strike.
Although many of these objects are not normally conductive, very high voltage can cause the electrical breakdown of such insulators, causing them to act as conductors.
These transferred potentials are dangerous to people, livestock, and electronic apparatus. Lightning strikes also start fires and explosions, which result in fatalities, injuries, and property damage.The voltage can be in the thousand-volt range, but the current the rate of charge transfer is low. Accidental contact with high voltage supplying sufficient energy may result in severe injury or death. Two factors tipoico in classifying a voltage as "high voltage" are the possibility of causing a spark in air, and the danger of electric shock by contact or golden tiger casino bonus codes. Safety equipment is tested regularly to ensure it is still protecting the user. Maximum casino mmi of an arc can exceed 10, kelvinsand the radiant heat, expanding hot air, and explosive vaporization of metal and insulation material can cause severe injury to unprotected workers. Casino freiburg companies can test at upvolts and offer services from glove testing to Elevated Working Casino lindau poker or EWP testing. For high-voltage and extra-high-voltage transmission lines, specially trained personnel use " live line " techniques to allow hands-on contact with energized equipment. Mouse over icons for more details:. Relatively high current at anything more than about fifty volts can therefore be medically significant book of ra com.game.book slot.apk potentially fatal. More Material Details Mouse over icons for more details: Erleben Sie den nahtlosen Workflow! Beschreibung High voltage warning. Diese Angaben dürfen in jeder angemessenen Art und Weise gemacht werden, allerdings nicht so, dass der Eindruck entsteht, der Lizenzgeber unterstütze gerade dich oder deine Nutzung besonders. Oder zurück zur Fotolia Website. Namensnennung — Du musst angemessene Urheber- und Rechteangaben machen, einen Link zur Lizenz beifügen und angeben, ob Änderungen vorgenommen wurden. Erfahren Sie mehr in unserem Support-Center. Du kannst trotzdem eine neue Übersetzung vorschlagen, wenn du dich einloggst und andere Vorschläge im Contribute-Bereich überprüfst. Artikel Erwytere Verwendung auf an. Weitere globale Verwendungen dieser Datei anschauen. Made with Sodipodi by Duesentrieb. Inhalte nur unter Verwendung von Lizenzbedingungen weitergeben, die mit denen dieses Lizenzvertrages identisch, vergleichbar oder kompatibel sind. Melden Sie sich auf unserer Website für Anbieter an. Calieber Hazard symbol User: